Advancements in India's Fight Against Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Overview

Image depicting the headline: 'India registers 16% decline in TB incidence: Annual India TB report', illustrating the significant progress in India's fight against tuberculosis
Advancements in India's Fight Against Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Overview

The annual India TB report reveals encouraging progress in the nation's battle against tuberculosis (TB) from 2015 to 2022, showcasing a remarkable 16% decline in TB incidence, surpassing the global decline of 9%. This comprehensive overview delves into the key findings and milestones outlined in the National TB Elimination Programme, India TB Report 2024.

Key Findings:

  • India recorded a significant milestone with 25.55 lakh TB cases notified in 2023, marking the highest since the inception of the National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme.
  • Uttar Pradesh and Bihar led the state-wise notifications, with Uttar Pradesh reporting the highest number of TB cases.
  • Notably, the private sector contributed over 8.4 lakh TB case notifications, indicating a 1.17% increase from the previous year and a substantial rise since 2017.

Treatment Coverage and Mortality:

  • India's treatment coverage surged to 80% of estimated TB cases, reflecting a 19% increase over the preceding year.
  • TB mortality saw a significant decline to 23 per lakh population, showcasing an 18% decrease from 2015 figures.

Achievements and Milestones:

  • India achieved a noteworthy case notification rate of approximately 179 cases per lakh population in 2023, narrowing the coverage gap to 0.2 million.
  • The programme's dedication to combating drug resistance is evident with 63,939 cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosed in 2023.
  • Active case-finding efforts led to screening over 20.5 crore individuals for TB symptoms.
  • Demographically, 60.7% of notified TB cases were men, 39.2% were women, and 0.04% were transgender.

Understanding TB:

  • Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily affects the lungs and spreads through airborne droplets.
  • Diagnosis involves chest X-rays, sputum tests, and skin tests, while treatment comprises a combination of antibiotics taken over several months.

Types of TB:

  • Latent TB, dormant in individuals without symptoms, can progress to active TB if untreated.
  • Active TB manifests with symptoms and is contagious, affecting either the lungs (pulmonary TB) or other organs (extrapulmonary TB).
  • Other forms include Miliary TB, affecting multiple organs, and drug-resistant TB, which challenges conventional treatment methods.

TB-HIV Co-infection:

  • TB-HIV co-infection poses a significant health risk globally, with India reporting 34,476 co-infected cases in 2023.
  • Effective management involves starting patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis Therapy (CPT).

National TB Elimination Programme:

  • Launched in 1997, the National TB Elimination Programme employs the DOTS strategy, offers free diagnosis and treatment, and fosters public-private partnerships.
  • Active case finding, facilitated by the Nikshay platform, and the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for TB Elimination 2017-2025, drive India's efforts toward TB eradication by 2025.

India's Goals:

  • India aspires to eliminate TB by 2025, aligning with the global Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of 2030.
  • Despite significant progress, India acknowledges the need for sustained efforts to combat TB effectively.

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