Resources (NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 1 Notes)

Wind and Solar Energy are examples of Renewable Resources
Wind and Solar Energy are examples of Renewable Resources
Anything which has certain value and utility can be termed as a resource. Water, air, land, schools, books, hospitals and railways are a few prominent examples of the resource.

Anything which can be used by you and benefits you in a certain way, it has utility.

The utility of an object determines the value of that object. The value of a resource is measured in economic terms, simply saying, money. All resources have a certain value. However, there are resources which may not have economic value but have aesthetic or cultural value.

Time and technology are two factors which can transform a less valuable object into a more economically valuable product.

Humans, themselves, are important resources as their ideas, discoveries and invention show the way to the creation of more economically valuable resources. For example, solar technology or hydro technology are used for harnessing energy from the sun and water.

Types of Resources

Resources can be classified as 1. natural resources, 2. man-made resources and 3. human resource.

Natural Resources

Anything which is directly taken from Nature and used without no or few changes are known as natural resources. Air, water, land and minerals are prime examples of natural resources.

Natural resources can be classified into different groups on the basis of 1. level of development and use, 2. origin, 3. stock and 4. distribution.

On the basis of development and use, natural resources can be classified as actual resources and potential resources.

Actual resources: Those resources whose real quantity is known and currently in use are known as actual resources. Coal Deposits in Ruhr Region (Germany), Petroleum in West Asia, Diamond Deposits in Johannesburg (South Africa), Dark soils of Deccan plateau, Wollastonite deposits in Rajasthan are prime examples of actual resources.

Potential resources: Those resources whose real quantity is speculated and not being used are known as potential resources. These resources can be developed and used in future. Uranium, Tidal Waves and Solar Insolation are some of the prominent examples of the potential resources.

On the basis of origin, natural resources are classified as abiotic resources and biotic resources.

Abiotic resources: The non-living resources such as coal, petroleum, soil, water and minerals are termed as abiotic resources.
Biotic resources: The living resources such as plants, cattle and farm animals are termed as biotic resources.

On the basis of the stock, resources can be classified as renewable and non-renewable resources.

Renewable resources: Those resources which get replenished or renewed are known as renewable resources. Water, soil and air are examples of renewable resources.
Non-renewable resources: Those resources which do not replenish or renew after some time of their use are known as non-renewable resources. Coal, petroleum and gas are examples of renewable resources.

However, due to the mindless use and exploitation of renewable resources, their ability to renew and replenish get affected, and they can be categorised as non-renewable resources.

On the basis of distribution, resources can classify as ubiquitous and localized resources.

Ubiquitous resources: Resources which are available everywhere on Earth are known as ubiquitous resources. Land, air and water are three main examples of the ubiquitous resources.
Localized resources: Resources which are limited to certain place are known as localized resources. Mineral deposits are prime examples of localized resources.

Man-made Resources

Certain resources are not available in nature directly. They are transformed and made usable by the effort of man. Such resources are known as man-made resources. Schools, hospitals, vehicles, bridges, roads and machinery are examples of man-made resources.

Human Resource

Humans have the ability to create and develop new resources with the agency of their skills, knowledge and technology. This is why they are called resource. The term "human resource" can be defined as the number and skills (both mental and physical) of the people.

The process of improving the quality of people's lives and their knowledge is known as human resource development. Education and healthcare are two core sectors in human resource development.

Sustainable Development

The careful use of the resource and giving them ample time to replenish is known as resource conservation. On another hand, critical and balanced use of resource and conserving them for future generation is known as sustainable development.

Principles of Sustainable Development
1. Respect all forms of life and resources.
2. Improve the quality of human life.
3. Conserve earth's biodiversity.
4. Reduce dependency on non-renewable resources.
5. Minimize damage to the natural environment.
6. Change personal habits and attitude toward nature.
7. Educate others to care about the environment.
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