Industries (NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes)

Industries (NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5)
World Industrial Region/
Manufacturing (Secondary Activities) changes raw materials into products of a much greater value for people. Industry refers to the economic actitivty concerned with extraction of minerals or raw material, production of finished goods and provision of services. Thus we have iron industry (extraction), steel industry (production) and tourism industry (service).

Classification of Industry
On the basis of Raw Materials,
  1. Agro based industries uses plant and animal based products as their raw material. Example, food processing, dairy product, cotton industry, meat and poultry industry and leather industry.
  2. Mineral based industries uses mineral ores as their base raw material. Example, Coal, Iron and Petroleum. Mineral based industries provide finished products to other industries. For example, iron industry provide iron for steel, railways, construction and other industries.
  3. Marine based industries uses raw materials extracted from sea and oceans. For example, sea food and fish oil industry.
  4. Forest based industries uses forest based products as their raw materials. Example, paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and construction industry.

On the basis of Size,
  1. Small scale industries require low capital investment and technology. It can be started by employing a small group of people and it is labour intensive. Handicraft and Silk industries are the prime example of small scale industries.
  2. Large scale industries require high amount of capital and technology. A large number of men and women need to be employed. It is technology driven and known for large productions. Automobile and heavy machinery industries are the suitable examples of the large scale industries.

On the basis of ownership,
  1. Public or State owned Industries are those industries which are owned exculusively by the Government. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Antrix Limited, Steel Authority of India Limited are examples of public sector companies.
  2. Private sector industries are those industries which are owned by an individual or a group of individuals. Tata Steel, Mahindra, Google and Microsoft are examples of private sector companies.
  3. Joint sector industries are those industries which are jointly owned by the state and individual or group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector company.
  4. Co-operative sector industries are those industries which are operated and owned by suppliers of raw materials. Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL) and Sudha Dairy are prime examples of co-operative sector companies.

Factors Affecting Location of Industries
1. availability of raw material
2. land
3. water
4. labour
5. power
6. capital
7. transport
8. market
9. government subsidies

Industrial System
  1. It consists of inputs, processes and output.
  2. Inputs are raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport and power.
  3. Processes include activities which convert raw material into finished product.
  4. Outputs are end product and income.
  5. In case of textitle industry, inputs are cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost; processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing; and outputs are shirt and economic benefit to people involved in making of shirt.

Industrial Regions
  1. An industrial region emerge when a number of industries setup near to each other and reaps mutual economic benefits.
  2. Some of the heaviest industrialized regions of the world area North America, Europe and Asia.
  3. These are usually found in temperate regions near coal fields and sea ports.
  4. Mumbai-Pune industrial cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram cluster are some of the most important industrial regions in India.

Distribution of Major Industries
  1. Iron and steel, textile and information technology (IT) are some of the major industries of the world.
  2. Iron and steel and textile are examples of old and conventional industries whereas IT along with Wellness and Hospitality are new and emerging industries. Emerging industries are also known as sunshine industries.

IndustryMajor Hubs
Iron and steelGermany, USA, China, Japan and Russia
TextileIndia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan
ITUnited States, India, Europe
Iron and Steel Industry
Iron and Steel industry is known as the feeder industry. It is known as the backbone of the modern industrial system. Its finished products are used as raw material in other industry.
It follow smilar industrial system of input, processes and output.

InputRaw material (iron ore, coal and limestone), labour, capital, site and other infrastructure
ProcessConversion of iron ore into iron and steel
OutputIron and Steel

One tonne of steel requires 8 tonnes of coal, 4 tonnes of iron ore and 1 tonne of limestone on average.
On addition of small amounts of materials such copper, nickel and aluminium, iron and steel forms alloys. Alloys have unusual hardness, toughness, and ability to resist rust.

Ideal Location for Iron and Steel Industry
  1. Before 1800, the ideal site for iron and steel industry was located where materials, power supply and running water were readily available.
  2. From 1800 to 1950, a place near coal industry with good canal or railways connectivity became the ideal site for the industry.
  3. From 1950, iron and steel industries shifted to sea ports due to their scale they need to import coal from other countries.

Iron and Steel Industry in India
  1. In India, iron and steel indusrty is flourishing because of avaialability of raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market.
  2. Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Rourkela, Bokaro, Vijay Nagar (Karnataka), Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Salem (Tamil Nadu) are important centres of iron and steel industries in India.

  1. Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO) is the first and only pre-independece steel producer in India.
  2. It was started by Jamshedji Tata in 1907 at Sakchi, near confluence of Subarnarekha and Kharkai rivers in Jharkhand. It is a privately owned company.
  3. Sakchi was later renamed Jamshedpur after the founder of TISCO, Jamshedji Tata.
  4. Jamshedpur (Sakchi) was chosen for TISCO for several reasons. These are 1. Closeness to Kalamati Station of Bengal-Nagpur Railway Line, 2. Closeness to iron ore, coal, limestone, dolomite and manganese deposit fields, 3. water supply from Kharkai  and  Subarnarekha rivers, and 4. closeness to Kolkata.
  5. Several other industries were setup in Jamshedpur after TISCO. They produce chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, heavy machinery,   cable and wire.
  6. Indian iron and steel industry cosists of both large steel plants and mini steel mills along with secondary producers, rolling mills and ancillary industries.

  1. Pittsburgh is one of the major steel producing centres of the United States.
  2. Pittsburgh gets its coal locally, but iron ore from Minnesota, about 1500 km away from Pittsburgh.
  3. Pittsburgh is connected to Minnesota from one of the cheapest transport routes, Great Lakes waterway.
  4. Ohio, the Monogahela and Allegheny provide enough water supply to support the industry.
  5. Pittsburgh is also known for railway equipments and heavy machinery.

Cotton textile industry
The textile industry can be divided on the basis of raw material. Fibres are the raw material of the textile industry. Fibres are of two types, natural and man-made. Cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax are natural fibres whereas nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon are man-made fibres.

  1. Cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world.
  2. Till 18th century, cotton was made by hand using hand looms.
  3. In 18th century, power looms revolutionized the cotton textile industry. Britain was the face of this revolution.
  4. Now, India, China, Japan and United States are leaders in cotton textile industry.
  5. India has a rich history of cotton textile. Before the British Raj, Indian cotton industry was famous for its high quality cotton.
  6. Dhaka Muslin, Masulipatnam Chintze, Calicut Calicos and  Gold-wrought cotton of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara were famous worldwide.
  7. However, the Indian hand-woven cotton industry fell after the rise of mechanized western cotton industry, which is known for its cheap and better quality of cotton.
  8. The first textile mill in India was established at Fort Gloster near Kolkata in 1818. However, it was shut down soon.
  9. The first successful mechanized textile mill at Mumbai was established in 1854.
  10. In 19th century, Maharashtra and Gujarat were the leading producer of cotton. However, it spread to Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad,  Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry and Panipat with the rise of 20th century.

Ahemedabad Cotton Industry
  1. Ahmedabad is located on the bank of Sabarmati river in Gujarat.
  2. The first textile mill in Ahmedabad was established in 1859.
  3. It soon became second largest textile producing city after Mumbai and often referred as Manchester of India.
  4. Availability of land and cheap labour, suitable climatic conditions, better connectivity to Mumbai and other parts of country led to the success of Ahmedabad.
  5. Nowadays, several textile mills have closed due to non-upgradation of machinery and rise of new cotton textile centres.

Osaka Cotton Industry
  1. Osaka is the textile industry town of Japan. It is known by the moniker of Manchester of Japan.
  2. Availability of suitable land, warm climate, water for Yodo river, cheap and skilled labour and port facility worked in favor of Osaka cotton textile industry.
  3. Osaka imports its cotton from Egypt, India, China and United States.
  4. Osaka cotton textile industry is now facing competition for local iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment and cement industries.

Information Technology Industry
  1. IT industry deals with storage, processing and distribution of raw data and information.
  2. IT industry has rose to prominence due to series of technological, political and socio-economic events.
  3. The guiding factor behind the location of IT industry is resource and infrastructure availability.
  4. Silicon Valley (California) and Bengaluru are two major IT hubs of the world.
  5. There are other emerging IT Hubs in India. These are Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Hyderabad, Kochi, Thiruvanthapuram and Chennai.
  6. Better road and transport facility, cluster of firms and cheap rent along with government subsidies are ideal sites for IT hubs.

Advantages of Bangalore
  1. Clean and pleasant environment
  2. Low cost of living
  3. Government support (Karnataka was the first to annouce IT Policy in 1992)
  4. Skilled and experienced workforce
  5. Largest number of IT colleges in India
  6. Good transport facilities
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