Crop Adaptation

Wheat Stalks
Crop Adaptation
Adaptation can be defined as an evolutionary process in which a plant species develops certain features and adapts to the specific conditions of its habitat. This allows a plant to make the full use of nutrients, water, and sunshine available. In addition, help plant to fight against the temperature extrimities, water stress, diseases and insect pressure.

Adapatation is different from acclimation and flexibility. The flexibility actually deals with the capicity of a plant to survive in different conditions whereas acclimation means temporary changes to the plant phenotype made by changing environment.

(a) Morphological adaptation refers to morphological changes in plant growth pattern, for example, strengthning of stalk, development of radial stems.
(b) Physiological adaptation refers to development of features which make plant resistant to parasites, competitive for nutrients, or withstand desiccation.

Factors which influence crop adaptation and distribution
1. Genetic or evolutionary factor
2. Climatic factors: light, temperature, moisture, wind
3. Edaphic factors like soil, parent material, physiography
4. Biotic factors like obligate insect pollination, seed dissemination by animals
5. Cultural preference such as preference for certain food than other
6. Technology such as seeds, agricultural equipments and methods, irrigation water supply

Source: Crop Adaptation, Frank Kellehner (pdf)

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